Types of Cavities & How They are Treated

Gentle Dental

Healthy untreated tooth and dental caries or cavities icon set. Severity of tooth destruction.

When most people think about cavities, they imagine tiny holes in the surface of teeth. While this is a fairly accurate description; cavities can actually affect teeth in different ways. Here are the most common types of cavities, along with the appropriate treatment options for each.

Root Cavities

Occurring on the surface of a tooth’s roots, these cavities are more common in adults, who are more likely to have recession and other gum disorders. When gums recede, the roots are left more exposed, leaving them more susceptible to decay.

To treat root cavities, dentists start by removing any decay and then fill the cavity with a filling. If decay has spread to the pulp, root canal therapy is usually needed. Since this portion of the tooth does not have as much protective enamel, decay can spread relatively quickly, which is why it’s very important to treat root cavities as soon as possible. If a root canal is required or the cavity is large, a crown may be recommended by your doctor as well. 

Pit and Fissure Cavities

Commonly found on the rear molars, these types of cavities occur on the chewing surfaces of teeth. Since it’s easy for plaque and food to get stuck in the crevices and grooves on the tops of teeth, pit and fissure cavities are quite common, especially for people who don’t brush as often as they should. In some cases, sealants can be sued to help protect teeth in children and adults who are at a higher risk of developing pit and fissure cavities. 

If they are found early, pit and fissure cavities can be treated with sealants or some types of fluoride. Once the cavity becomes deeper, however, a dentist will need to remove decay and repair the tooth with fillings or possibly root canals and crowns.

Fillings typically work well for smaller cavities; however, large pit and fissure cavities often require root canals or crowns because the decay is very deep or the remaining tooth structure is too weak.

Smooth-Surface Cavities

Commonly occurring on the sides of the mouth, smooth-surface cavities affect the flat exterior surface of teeth. Although they aren’t as common, these types of cavities can be a problem for people who don’t practice good dental hygiene.

Since they are slow-growing, smooth-surface cavities are more easily treatable. Many times, they will resolve with the help of fluoride treatments, such as gels, toothpaste, varnish or fluoride-enriched water. It generally takes a lot of time for a cavity to make its way through smooth-surface enamel. When it does, however, a filling will be necessary.

Sometimes, people can develop interproximal cavities which affect the smooth surface between teeth. Dentists usually use x-rays to detect cavities between teeth. If one is found, fluoride treatments can often help, unless the cavity has entered the tooth’s dentin, in which case a filling will be necessary.

Catching Cavities Early

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 91 percent of all Americans have some type of cavity in their teeth, while another 27 percent have untreated tooth decay.

With prompt treatment, most every type of cavity can be treated without much trouble. When treatment is delayed, however, expensive and lengthy treatments usually become necessary. There is also a risk of developing pain and infection. This is why it’s so important to maintain regular dental checkups to help catch unknown issues before they evolve into serious and expensive dental problems.